Unsurprisingly, there was a reaction to this understanding of social pedagogy during post-war reconstruction. The fear that the educational socialization apparently implied within social pedagogy could be directed to the needs of the nation at the cost of individuals and of significant groups hung heavy. Moves towards more individual, problem-based work seemed a safer option than the mass and group work of the then recent past. However, there was a limited counterbalance through the influence of writers such as Lewin (1948; 1951) on American ‘re-education’ efforts. He made a strong case for the use of small groups in the resolution of conflicts and the promotion of democracy. It was a theme also taken up by somewhat more pessimistically by Lindeman (who also advised the British army education service in Germany – see Stewart 1987: 212-214). Thus, as the German social welfare system evolved, social pedagogy did not take quite the course that Diestersweg envisaged. Rather than informing the shape of schooling it became seen as the ‘third’ area of welfare beside the family and school. It can be represented as:
Adult learning is a vast area of educational research and probably one of the most complicated. Adults learn differently and have different strategies in learning. Adults Learning Theory and Principles explain in details these strategies and sheds more light on how adults cultivate knowledge.
Talking about adult learning brings us to the concept of Andragogy. According to the article Malcolm Knowles an American practitioner and theorist of adult education, defined andragogy as “the art and science of helping adults learn”. Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning as: