The important monarchs, who were on what had hitherto been regarded as the fringes of the Greeks' world, have suffered less recent neglect. Mausolus of Caria, a semi-independent ruler of that part of the Persian Empire, may or may not have been unduly preoccupied with his posthumous memorial, but he anticipated the Macedonian kings, in part, by helping to dismantle the Athenian League and hence to undermine Greek democracy, and also by substantially advancing the Hellenisation of his part of Asia Minor. All his activities have been massively reviewed in Simon Hornblower's Mausolus (Oxford University Press, 1982). Philip of Macedon has had no less than four books recently devoted to him. A good introduction to the main problems is provided by Miltiades B. Hatzopoulos and Louisa D. Loukopoulos (eds), Philip of Macedon (Heinemann, 1981), which contains brief essays by ten leading scholars, and a great many superb illustrations, among which those of the recent stunning excavations of what is almost certainly Philip's tomb stand out. The other books are all by contributors to this volume. George Cawkwell's Philip of Macedon (Faber, 1978), the shortest and liveliest, concentrates on the figure of the cunning, organising and culturally phil-Hellene King and his conflict with Athens, led much of the time by Demosthenes. While Cawkwell has some sympathy for the ideals of liberty and democracy which Demosthenes sought to preserve, he is severely, perhaps too severely, critical of his policies. Ellis' Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism (Thames and Hudson, 1976) is fuller, and with more documentation emphasises the importance of the creation of the great new Macedonian army both in unifying the state and in creating pressure for increased imperialism which Philip, and later Alexander, were happy to direct. Fullest of all is . Hammond and . Griffith, A History of Macedonia , 550-336 BC (Oxford University Press, 1979), which surveys all aspects of the problems from a predominantly Macedonian viewpoint.