The Indian Sociological Society was set up in Bombay with the initiative of Prof. G. S. Ghurye, Head of the Department of Sociology, University of Bombay. The Society was registered in December 1951 under the Societies Registration Act. G. S. Ghurye was the Founder-President. Prof. J. V. Fereira followed by Prof. K. M. Kapadia were the Secretaries. Prof. Ghurye served as President of the ISS from 1951 to 1966. The Society started a biannual journal Sociological Bulletin from March 1952. It held seminars/workshops occasionally on selected themes but did not organize large conferences. With the initiative taken by Prof. R. N. Saxena, from the year 1955 onwards six All India Sociological Conferences (AISC) were held in different parts of the country.
Reinforcements may be positive or negative. In positive reinforcement, the behavior results in something good — some positive consequence. This consequence may involve such things as money, the pleasurable feelings associated with drug use, attention from parents, approval from friends, or an increase in social status. In negative reinforcement, the behavior results in the removal of something bad — a punisher is removed or avoided. For example, suppose one's friends have been calling her a coward because she refuses to use drugs with them. The individual eventually takes drugs with them, after which time they stop calling her a coward. The individual's drug use has been negatively reinforced.