Finally, there is an epistemological argument against evolution as fact. Some readers of these newsgroups point out that nothing in science can ever be "proven" and this includes evolution. According to this argument, the probability that evolution is the correct explanation of life as we know it may approach ...9% but it will never be 100%. Thus evolution cannot be a fact. This kind of argument might be appropriate in a philosophy class (it is essentially correct) but it won't do in the real world. A "fact," as Stephen J. Gould pointed out ( see above ), means something that is so highly probable that it would be silly not to accept it. This point has also been made by others who contest the nit-picking epistemologists.
Attempts to recapture a space for discussion free of disciplines began in earnest in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The Frankfurt Institute for Social Research provides the most successful historical example. The Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago followed in the 1940s. In the 1970s, programs in Social and Political Thought were established at Sussex and York . Others followed, with various emphases and structures, such as Social Theory and History ( University of California, Davis ). Cultural Studies programs, notably that of Birmingham University , extended the concerns of social theory into the domain of culture and thus anthropology . A chair and undergraduate program in social theory was established at the University of Melbourne and a number of universities now specialize in social theory ( UC-Santa Cruz is one example). Social theory at present seems to be gaining more acceptance as a classical academic discipline.